Chest tuberculosis (CTB) is a widespread problem, especially in our country where it is one of the leading causes of mortality.

Though various radiological modalities are widely used in evaluation of such patients, no imaging guidelines exist for the use of these modalities in diagnosis and follow-up. Consequently, imaging is not optimally utilized and patients are often unnecessarily subjected to repeated CT examinations

TB can affect any organ system, although manifestations are most commonly related to the chest. The lungs are the most common and often the initial site of involvement. Chest involvement is most commonly pulmonary, followed by lymph nodal and pleural disease (latter two are included under EPTB). Chest wall, cardiac, breast, and skeletal involvement can also occur in the thorax; however, these are beyond the scope of the current review. In the current review, we discuss the most common types of CTB, namely PTB and EPTB (pleural/lymph nodal). Cough greater than 2 weeks is the primary criterion to suspect PTB. Patients of PTB/EPTB also present with fever, loss of appetite and loss of weight, chest pain or dyspnea.